The moderator of a nuclear reactor is a substance that slows neutrons down. In traditional nuclear reactors, the moderator is the same thing as the coolant: it’s water! When fast neutrons strike the hydrogen atoms in H2O, they slow down a lot (like a billiard ball striking another).
Which is used as a moderator in nuclear reactor?
Hint: In a nuclear reactor, a process like nuclear fission occurs, where neutrons move very fast, so, water is used as a moderator to slow down the neutrons, so that the nuclear reaction sustains for efficient output.
Why is water used as a moderator in nuclear reactors?
Heavy water is used in reactors because its benefits are similar to light water, but since it contains deuterium atoms, its neutron absorption cross section is much lower. The main disadvantage to the use of heavy water is its high cost of production, as it is made using the Girder-Sulfide process.
Why water is not a moderator in nuclear reactor?
Ordinary water stops the nuclear fission by absorbing the fast moving neutrons.
How much energy does 1g of uranium produce?
The fission of 1 g of uranium or plutonium per day liberates about 1 MW. This is the energy equivalent of 3 tons of coal or about 600 gallons of fuel oil per day, which when burned produces approximately 1/4 tonne of carbon dioxide.
Which is the most commonly used moderator?
Water (sometimes called “light water” in this context) is the most commonly used moderator (roughly 75% of the world’s reactors). Solid graphite (20% of reactors) and heavy water (5% of reactors) are the main alternatives.
Is graphite a better moderator than water?
Reactors that use graphite (carbon) as the moderator tend to have higher conversion ratios than water moderated reactors. … There is less capture of thermal neutrons by carbon compared to water. Thus, there are more thermal neutrons to undergo capture (and fission) reactions.
What is the cost of 1 kg uranium?
Indian authorities yesterday arrested a man discovered in possession of close to 1 kilogram of uranium worth approximately $7 million, the Times of India reported (see GSN, June 3).
Can you eat uranium?
Uranium is also a toxic chemical, meaning that ingestion of uranium can cause kidney damage from its chemical properties much sooner than its radioactive properties would cause cancers of the bone or liver.