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h is the head, or the usable fall height, expressed in units of length (meters or feet) Q is the discharge (also called the flow rate), calculated as Q = A * v. A is the cross-sectional area of the channel. v is the flow velocity.

## How do you calculate net head?

The net head is defined as the gross head minus all pipe losses due to friction and turbulence and is used to calculate the available power capacity of the water resource. To determine the net head, **the river’s gross head must be measured and pipe loses calculated**.

## How do you calculate the power output of a water turbine?

The formula for the power calculation is **P = η * ρ * g * h * Q**. The volumetric flow rate can be calculated as Q = A * v.

## What is powerhouse in hydropower plant?

The powerhouse of a hydroelectric development project is the **place where the potential and kinetic energy of the water flowing through the water conducting system is transformed into mechanical energy of rotating turbines** and which is then further converted to electrical energy by generators.

## What is total head in Bernoulli’s equation?

The pressure head represents the flow energy of a column of fluid whose weight is equivalent to the pressure of the fluid. The sum of the elevation head, velocity head, and pressure head of a fluid is called the total head. Thus, Bernoulli’s equation states that **the total head of the fluid is constant**.

## How do you prevent head loss?

**Solutions for Friction Loss**

- Reduce interior surface roughness of the piping system.
- Increase pipe diameter of the piping system.
- Minimize length of piping system.
- Minimize the number of elbows, tees, valves, fittings, and other obstructions in the piping system; replace 90 degree turns with gentle bends.

## What is the head of turbine?

The type of hydropower turbine selected for a project is based on **the height of standing water**—referred to as “head”—and the flow, or volume of water over time, at the site.

## What is water power formula?

[dropcap3]1[/dropcap3]Hydraulic Power Calculation

And weight is the downward force the water exerts which = mass x acceleration due to gravity. Therefore put those all together and you get: Hydraulic Power = **Joules per second = Watts = Density x Volume x acceleration due to gravity x distance.**

## How much electricity does hydropower produce?

Hydropower is the most efficient way to generate electricity. Modern hydro turbines can convert as much as 90% of the available energy into electricity. The best fossil fuel plants are only about 50% efficient. In the U.S., hydropower is produced for an **average of 0.85 cents per kilowatt-hour (kwh)**.

## What is the efficiency formula?

Efficiency is often measured as the ratio of useful output to total input, which can be expressed with the mathematical formula **r=P/C**, where P is the amount of useful output (“product”) produced per the amount C (“cost”) of resources consumed.